3月6日,扎克伯格在Facebook上发布一个帖子——“A Privacy-Focused Vision for Social Networking”。这是他面对近年来Facebook一系列“隐私事件”缠身后的思考和对Facebook的重新定位,非常值得大家关注。


A Privacy-Focused Vision for Social Networking

Mark Zuckerberg·2019年3月6日周三

My focus for the last couple of years has been understanding and addressing the biggest challenges facing Facebook. This means taking positions on important issues concerning the future of the internet. In this note, I'll outline our vision and principles around building a privacy-focused messaging and social networking platform. There's a lot to do here, and we're committed to working openly and consulting with experts across society as we develop this.


Over the last 15 years, Facebook and Instagram have helped people connect with friends, communities, and interests in the digital equivalent of a town square. But people increasingly also want to connect privately in the digital equivalent of the living room. As I think about the future of the internet, I believe a privacy-focused communications platform will become even more important than today's open platforms. Privacy gives people the freedom to be themselves and connect more naturally, which is why we build social networks.

Today we already see that private messaging, ephemeral stories, and small groups are by far the fastest growing areas of online communication. There are a number of reasons for this. Many people prefer the intimacy of communicating one-on-one or with just a few friends. People are more cautious of having a permanent record of what they've shared. And we all expect to be able to do things like payments privately and securely.

Public social networks will continue to be very important in people's lives -- for connecting with everyone you know, discovering new people, ideas and content, and giving people a voice more broadly. People find these valuable every day, and there are still a lot of useful services to build on top of them. But now, with all the ways people also want to interact privately, there's also an opportunity to build a simpler platform that's focused on privacy first.

I understand that many people don't think Facebook can or would even want to build this kind of privacy-focused platform -- because frankly we don't currently have a strong reputation for building privacy protective services, and we've historically focused on tools for more open sharing. But we've repeatedly shown that we can evolve to build the services that people really want, including in private messaging and stories.

I believe the future of communication will increasingly shift to private, encrypted services where people can be confident what they say to each other stays secure and their messages and content won't stick around forever. This is the future I hope we will help bring about.

We plan to build this the way we've developed WhatsApp: focus on the most fundamental and private use case -- messaging -- make it as secure as possible, and then build more ways for people to interact on top of that, including calls, video chats, groups, stories, businesses, payments, commerce, and ultimately a platform for many other kinds of private services.

This privacy-focused platform will be built around several principles:

Private interactions. People should have simple, intimate places where they have clear control over who can communicate with them and confidence that no one else can access what they share.

Encryption. People's private communications should be secure. End-to-end encryption prevents anyone -- including us -- from seeing what people share on our services.

Reducing Permanence. People should be comfortable being themselves, and should not have to worry about what they share coming back to hurt them later. So we won't keep messages or stories around for longer than necessary to deliver the service or longer than people want them.

Safety. People should expect that we will do everything we can to keep them safe on our services within the limits of what's possible in an encrypted service.

Interoperability. People should be able to use any of our apps to reach their friends, and they should be able to communicate across networks easily and securely.

Secure data storage. People should expect that we won't store sensitive data in countries with weak records on human rights like privacy and freedom of expression in order to protect data from being improperly accessed.

Over the next few years, we plan to rebuild more of our services around these ideas. The decisions we'll face along the way will mean taking positions on important issues concerning the future of the internet. We understand there are a lot of tradeoffs to get right, and we're committed to consulting with experts and discussing the best way forward. This will take some time, but we're not going to develop this major change in our direction behind closed doors. We're going to do this as openly and collaboratively as we can because many of these issues affect different parts of society.

Private Interactions as a Foundation

For a service to feel private, there must never be any doubt about who you are communicating with. We’ve worked hard to build privacy into all our products, including those for public sharing. But one great property of messaging services is that even as your contacts list grows, your individual threads and groups remain private. As your friends evolve over time, messaging services evolve gracefully and remain intimate.

This is different from broader social networks, where people can accumulate friends or followers until the services feel more public. This is well-suited to many important uses -- telling all your friends about something, using your voice on important topics, finding communities of people with similar interests, following creators and media, buying and selling things, organizing fundraisers, growing businesses, or many other things that benefit from having everyone you know in one place. Still, when you see all these experiences together, it feels more like a town square than a more intimate space like a living room.

There is an opportunity to build a platform that focuses on all of the ways people want to interact privately. This sense of privacy and intimacy is not just about technical features -- it is designed deeply into the feel of the service overall. In WhatsApp, for example, our team is obsessed with creating an intimate environment in every aspect of the product. Even where we've built features that allow for broader sharing, it's still a less public experience. When the team built groups, they put in a size limit to make sure every interaction felt private. When we shipped stories on WhatsApp, we limited public content because we worried it might erode the feeling of privacy to see lots of public content -- even if it didn't actually change who you're sharing with.

In a few years, I expect future versions of Messenger and WhatsApp to become the main ways people communicate on the Facebook network. We're focused on making both of these apps faster, simpler, more private and more secure, including with end-to-end encryption. We then plan to add more ways to interact privately with your friends, groups, and businesses. If this evolution is successful, interacting with your friends and family across the Facebook network will become a fundamentally more private experience.

Encryption and Safety

People expect their private communications to be secure and to only be seen by the people they've sent them to -- not hackers, criminals, over-reaching governments, or even the people operating the services they're using.

There is a growing awareness that the more entities that have access to your data, the more vulnerabilities there are for someone to misuse it or for a cyber attack to expose it. There is also a growing concern among some that technology may be centralizing power in the hands of governments and companies like ours. And some people worry that our services could access their messages and use them for advertising or in other ways they don't expect.

End-to-end encryption is an important tool in developing a privacy-focused social network. Encryption is decentralizing -- it limits services like ours from seeing the content flowing through them and makes it much harder for anyone else to access your information. This is why encryption is an increasingly important part of our online lives, from banking to healthcare services. It's also why we built end-to-end encryption into WhatsApp after we acquired it.

In the last year, I've spoken with dissidents who've told me encryption is the reason they are free, or even alive. Governments often make unlawful demands for data, and while we push back and fight these requests in court, there's always a risk we'll lose a case -- and if the information isn't encrypted we'd either have to turn over the data or risk our employees being arrested if we failed to comply. This may seem extreme, but we've had a case where one of our employees was actually jailed for not providing access to someone's private information even though we couldn't access it since it was encrypted.

At the same time, there are real safety concerns to address before we can implement end-to-end encryption across all of our messaging services. Encryption is a powerful tool for privacy, but that includes the privacy of people doing bad things. When billions of people use a service to connect, some of them are going to misuse it for truly terrible things like child exploitation, terrorism, and extortion. We have a responsibility to work with law enforcement and to help prevent these wherever we can. We are working to improve our ability to identify and stop bad actors across our apps by detecting patterns of activity or through other means, even when we can't see the content of the messages, and we will continue to invest in this work. But we face an inherent tradeoff because we will never find all of the potential harm we do today when our security systems can see the messages themselves.

Finding the right ways to protect both privacy and safety is something societies have historically grappled with. There are still many open questions here and we'll consult with safety experts, law enforcement and governments on the best ways to implement safety measures. We'll also need to work together with other platforms to make sure that as an industry we get this right. The more we can create a common approach, the better.

On balance, I believe working towards implementing end-to-end encryption for all private communications is the right thing to do. Messages and calls are some of the most sensitive private conversations people have, and in a world of increasing cyber security threats and heavy-handed government intervention in many countries, people want us to take the extra step to secure their most private data. That seems right to me, as long as we take the time to build the appropriate safety systems that stop bad actors as much as we possibly can within the limits of an encrypted service. We've started working on these safety systems building on the work we've done in WhatsApp, and we'll discuss them with experts through 2019 and beyond before fully implementing end-to-end encryption. As we learn more from those experts, we'll finalize how to roll out these systems.

Reducing Permanence

We increasingly believe it's important to keep information around for shorter periods of time. People want to know that what they share won't come back to hurt them later, and reducing the length of time their information is stored and accessible will help.

One challenge in building social tools is the "permanence problem". As we build up large collections of messages and photos over time, they can become a liability as well as an asset. For example, many people who have been on Facebook for a long time have photos from when they were younger that could be embarrassing. But people also really love keeping a record of their lives. And if all posts on Facebook and Instagram disappeared, people would lose access to a lot of valuable knowledge and experiences others have shared.

I believe there's an opportunity to set a new standard for private communication platforms -- where content automatically expires or is archived over time. Stories already expire after 24 hours unless you archive them, and that gives people the comfort to share more naturally. This philosophy could be extended to all private content.

For example, messages could be deleted after a month or a year by default. This would reduce the risk of your messages resurfacing and embarrassing you later. Of course you'd have the ability to change the timeframe or turn off auto-deletion for your threads if you wanted. And we could also provide an option for you to set individual messages to expire after a few seconds or minutes if you wanted.

It also makes sense to limit the amount of time we store messaging metadata. We use this data to run our spam and safety systems, but we don't always need to keep it around for a long time. An important part of the solution is to collect less personal data in the first place, which is the way WhatsApp was built from the outset.


People want to be able to choose which service they use to communicate with people. However, today if you want to message people on Facebook you have to use Messenger, on Instagram you have to use Direct, and on WhatsApp you have to use WhatsApp. We want to give people a choice so they can reach their friends across these networks from whichever app they prefer.

We plan to start by making it possible for you to send messages to your contacts using any of our services, and then to extend that interoperability to SMS too. Of course, this would be opt-in and you will be able to keep your accounts separate if you'd like.

There are privacy and security advantages to interoperability. For example, many people use Messenger on Android to send and receive SMS texts. Those texts can't be end-to-end encrypted because the SMS protocol is not encrypted. With the ability to message across our services, however, you'd be able to send an encrypted message to someone's phone number in WhatsApp from Messenger.

This could also improve convenience in many experiences where people use Facebook or Instagram as their social network and WhatsApp as their preferred messaging service. For example, lots of people selling items on Marketplace list their phone number so people can message them about buying it. That's not ideal, because you're giving strangers your phone number. With interoperability, you'd be able to use WhatsApp to receive messages sent to your Facebook account without sharing your phone number -- and the buyer wouldn't have to worry about whether you prefer to be messaged on one network or the other.

You can imagine many simple experiences like this -- a person discovers a business on Instagram and easily transitions to their preferred messaging app for secure payments and customer support; another person wants to catch up with a friend and can send them a message that goes to their preferred app without having to think about where that person prefers to be reached; or you simply post a story from your day across both Facebook and Instagram and can get all the replies from your friends in one place.

You can already send and receive SMS texts through Messenger on Android today, and we'd like to extend this further in the future, perhaps including the new telecom RCS standard. However, there are several issues we'll need to work through before this will be possible. First, Apple doesn't allow apps to interoperate with SMS on their devices, so we'd only be able to do this on Android. Second, we'd need to make sure interoperability doesn't compromise the expectation of encryption that people already have using WhatsApp. Finally, it would create safety and spam vulnerabilities in an encrypted system to let people send messages from unknown apps where our safety and security systems couldn't see the patterns of activity.

These are significant challenges and there are many questions here that require further consultation and discussion. But if we can implement this, we can give people more choice to use their preferred service to securely reach the people they want.

Secure Data Storage

People want to know their data is stored securely in places they trust. Looking at the future of the internet and privacy, I believe one of the most important decisions we'll make is where we'll build data centers and store people's sensitive data.

There's an important difference between providing a service in a country and storing people's data there. As we build our infrastructure around the world, we've chosen not to build data centers in countries that have a track record of violating human rights like privacy or freedom of expression. If we build data centers and store sensitive data in these countries, rather than just caching non-sensitive data, it could make it easier for those governments to take people's information.

Upholding this principle may mean that our services will get blocked in some countries, or that we won't be able to enter others anytime soon. That's a tradeoff we're willing to make. We do not believe storing people's data in some countries is a secure enough foundation to build such important internet infrastructure on.

Of course, the best way to protect the most sensitive data is not to store it at all, which is why WhatsApp doesn't store any encryption keys and we plan to do the same with our other services going forward.

But storing data in more countries also establishes a precedent that emboldens other governments to seek greater access to their citizen's data and therefore weakens privacy and security protections for people around the world. I think it's important for the future of the internet and privacy that our industry continues to hold firm against storing people's data in places where it won't be secure.

Next Steps

Over the next year and beyond, there are a lot more details and tradeoffs to work through related to each of these principles. A lot of this work is in the early stages, and we are committed to consulting with experts, advocates, industry partners, and governments -- including law enforcement and regulators -- around the world to get these decisions right.

At the same time, working through these principles is only the first step in building out a privacy-focused social platform. Beyond that, significant thought needs to go into all of the services we build on top of that foundation -- from how people do payments and financial transactions, to the role of businesses and advertising, to how we can offer a platform for other private services.

But these initial questions are critical to get right. If we do this well, we can create platforms for private sharing that could be even more important to people than the platforms we've already built to help people share and connect more openly.

Doing this means taking positions on some of the most important issues facing the future of the internet. As a society, we have an opportunity to set out where we stand, to decide how we value private communications, and who gets to decide how long and where data should be stored.

I believe we should be working towards a world where people can speak privately and live freely knowing that their information will only be seen by who they want to see it and won't all stick around forever. If we can help move the world in this direction, I will be proud of the difference we've made.


A Privacy-Focused Vision for Social Networking

Mark Zuckerberg·2019年3月6日周三





公共社交网络将继续在人们的生活中非常重要 - 与您认识的每个人建立联系,发现新的人,想法和内容,并为人们提供更广泛的发言权。人们每天都发现这些有价值的东西,并且仍然有许多有用的服务可以建立在它们之上。但现在,通过人们也希望私下互动的所有方式,还有机会建立一个更加注重隐私的简单平台。

据我所知,很多人并不认为Facebook可以或甚至不想构建这种以隐私为重点的平台 - 因为坦率地说,我们目前在构建隐私保护服务方面并不具备良好的声誉,而且我们历来专注于更开放共享的工具。但我们一再表明,我们可以发展以构建人们真正想要的服务,包括私人消息和故事。


我们计划以我们开发WhatsApp的方式构建它:关注最基本和私有的用例 - 消息 - 尽可能保证安全,然后为人们构建更多方式进行交互,包括调用,视频聊天,群组,故事,企业,支付,商业,并最终成为许多其他类型的私人服务的平台。











这与更广泛的社交网络不同,在社交网络中,人们可以积累朋友或关注者,直到服务更加公开。这非常适合许多重要的用途 - 告诉所有朋友关于某些事情,在重要主题上使用您的声音,找到具有相似兴趣的人的社区,关注创作者和媒体,买卖东西,组织募捐活动,发展业务,或者在一个地方让你认识的每个人都受益的许多其他事情。尽管如此,当你将所有这些体验结合在一起时,感觉更像是一个城市广场,而不是像客厅那样更私密的空间。

有机会建立一个专注于人们想要私下互动的所有方式的平台。这种隐私和亲密感不仅仅与技术特性有关 - 它深深地融入了整体服务的感觉。例如,在WhatsApp中,我们的团队致力于在产品的各个方面创造一个亲密的环境。即使我们已经建立了允许更广泛共享的功能,它仍然是一种不那么公开的体验。当团队建立团队时,他们会设置一个大小限制,以确保每个互动都是私密的。当我们在WhatsApp上发布故事时,我们限制了公共内容,因为我们担心它会侵蚀隐私感,看到很多公共内容 - 即使它实际上没有改变你与谁分享的内容。



人们期望他们的私人通信是安全的,只有被他们发送给他们的人才能看到 - 而不是黑客,犯罪分子,影响深远的政府,甚至是他们正在使用的服务人员。


端到端加密是开发以隐私为中心的社交网络的重要工具。加密是分散的 - 它限制了像我们这样的服务,看不到流经它们的内容,并使其他人更难以访问您的信息。这就是为什么加密是我们在线生活中越来越重要的一部分,从银行业务到医疗保健服务。这也是我们在收购WhatsApp之后为WhatsApp构建端到端加密的原因。

在过去的一年里,我和那些告诉我加密的持不同政见者谈过他们是自由,甚至还活着的原因。政府经常对数据提出非法要求,虽然我们在法庭上推迟并反对这些要求,但我们总是存在风险,我们将失去一个案例 - 如果信息未加密,我们要么必须交出数据或者如果我们没有遵守规定,我们的员工会被逮捕。这可能看起来很极端,但我们有一个案例,我们的一名员工因为没有提供访问某人的私人信息而被判入狱,即使我们无法访问它,因为它已被加密。







我相信有机会为私人通信平台设定新标准 - 内容会自动过期或随着时间的推移而存档。故事已经在24小时后过期,除非您将它们存档,这样可以让人们更自然地分享。这种理念可以扩展到所有私人内容。







这也可以提高许多体验的便利性,人们使用Facebook或Instagram作为他们的社交网络,WhatsApp作为他们的首选消息服务。例如,很多在Marketplace上销售商品的人都会列出他们的电话号码,以便人们可以向他们发送购买信息。那不太理想,因为你给陌生人你的电话号码。通过互操作性,您可以使用WhatsApp接收发送到您的Facebook帐户的邮件,而无需共享您的电话号码 - 买家也不必担心您是希望在一个网络上发送消息还是在另一个网络上发送消息。

您可以想象许多这样的简单体验 - 一个人在Instagram上发现一项业务,并轻松过渡到他们首选的消息应用程序,以获得安全支付和客户支持;另一个人想要赶上一个朋友,可以向他们发送一条消息,发送到他们喜欢的应用程序,而不必考虑该人更喜欢的地方;或者你只需在Facebook和Instagram上发布一天的故事,就可以在一个地方收到你朋友的所有回复。










同时,完成这些原则只是构建以隐私为中心的社交平台的第一步。除此之外,重要的思想需要深入到我们在此基础之上构建的所有服务 - 从人们如何进行支付和金融交易,到企业和广告的角色,到我们如何为其他私人服务提供平台。